The Freinet Pedagogy today: The contribution of the italian movement
If Freinet techniques were adequate and functional to the dissemination of ideas, to awareness, communication, today the reading of reality is complex, problematic, and changing according to the views and the many facets of meaning.
At this complexity have put hand to help to decode the great revolutions paradigmatic which crossed the 900:
* The new physics
* Cultural anthropology, the humanities
* The history of the Annales ( the durations)
* Ecology of the environment, the ecology of the mind
* Systems and complexity theories
* Genetic epistemology
The list could go on with many other ramifications of the new fields of knowledge and research.
Freinet pedagogy maintaining the essence of its pedagogical and humanistic vision and his inspiration for the redemption of the lower classes ( ' pedagogy for the people'), needs to open up to new realities and to the increasingly accelerated knowledge available today.
The MCE has constantly questioned about how to reconcile the new currents of thought and their offsets and rollovers in models of knowledge and the disciplinary structure with the basis of Freinet pedagogy without distorting it, finding meaningful coincidences.
Or between the contributions of cultural anthropology in debunking the mythology of the race and in the criticism of Euro centrism and ethnocentrism and the attention of Freinet to cultural diversity, to subjectivity, to popular culture in spite of the power of the dominant culture.
Or between the recent discovery of the role of mirror neurons that highlights how the individual is naturally predisposed to intersubjectivity and the function that Freinet assigns to cooperation and solidarity and co-building of knowledge.
As well as the use of multimedia technologies: the spirit of Freinet in using those of his time was revolutionary and alternative. Today some of those techniques have been replaced with more modern and powerful media, but the spirit must remain the same. Teaching the use of technology has to be at service of man and women and not the contrary, the real challenge is to provide alternative critical tools to the "digital natives".
The MCE therefore considers that there is continuity and harmony between the educational and methodological proposals and the invitation constantly reiterated by Freinet and practiced by various scholars and his collaborators (P. Le Bohec, H. Go, Ph. Meirieu, ... ) in different countries around the opening to new instances, new needs, beyond the world of research.
belonging to Freinet in particular we consider still vital and important the following aspects:
• Starting from the child: the learner at the center of the processes of teaching / learning (cfr. Invariants)
• the natural method, the tâtonnement
• cooperative learning
• the democratic organization of the class, its institutions (the Council,the assembly ...)
• the shared schedule of school work with the assumption of responsibility by the parties that the implementation of the plan involves
• the plurality of materials and sources to face the exclusivity of the textbook
• space to expression and to the word
• the direct exercise of democracy as the construction of citizenship
Accepting and recognizing these contributions, connecting to the Freinet pedagogy, and developing them in parallel, we think will give benefit the movement representing a modern school in his complex and could foster the dialogue and coexistence with other proposals (the Anglo-Saxon world, Portugal, to give two examples).
During the RIDEF of Reggio Emilia the MCE has tried to illustrate with some ateliers such reworking.
In particular these workshop :
- "MCE publications '
- Astronomy in the town
Between content and researching fields that the MCE has introduced in its practice we point out, as 'outsiders' and unsettling than the classical pedagogy Freinet:
• the personal history, familiar one (family trees), generational one
• the imagination as a reservoir of knowledge
• the metaphor
• the theory of culture (in the anthropological sense)
• a pedagogy of the narration
• the education to alternative futures
The proposals on the trees of knowledge and French natural mathematics as the co-biographies and collective writing from Le Bohec, the Spanish body and telling stories worksops, together with the contents of various Mexicans, Brazilians, Japanese ones.
In many of these proposals we recognize similarities to grow in order to exchange, to know us, to enrich and refine our knowledge paths.
We need to exchange and mix together more and more and at the same time to define opportunities for discussion and exchange.
Giancarlo CAVINATO ( translated by Marta Fontana